In the mid-18th century it underwent a Baroque-style reconstruction initiated by Maria Theresa. It was this empress who used these premises to establish the Institute of Noblewomen in 1755. Her daughter, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, became its first Mother Superior. Intended for educating the daughters of nobility, the Institute was run until 1919. The symbol used by the Order was a picture of the Immaculate Conception of Virgin Mary in a golden oval-shaped medal. Moreover, Rožmberk Palace also accommodates the Baroque-style Chapel of Trinity and Immaculate Conception of Virgin Mary with a ceiling painting of the Trinity by J. P. Molitor, and wall paintings by J. Hager.
When the Institute ceased to exist in 1919, the building fell into the possession of the Ministry of Interior.